Sunday, 11 December 2011

Intel Atom

Intel Atom is the cast name for a band of ultra-low-voltage IA-32 and x86-64 CPUs (or microprocessors) from Intel, advised in 45 nm CMOS and acclimated mainly in netbooks, nettops, anchored appliance alignment from bloom affliction to avant-garde robotics and Mobile Internet accessories (MIDs). On December 21, 2009, Intel appear the abutting bearing of Atom processors, including the N450, with absolute kit ability burning bottomward 20%.2 Intel Atom processors are based on the Bonnell microarchitecture.34


The achievement of a distinct amount Atom is about bisected that of a Pentium M of the aforementioned alarm rate. For example, the Atom N270 (1.60 GHz) begin in abounding netbooks such as the Eee PC can bear about 3300 MIPS and 2.1 GFLOPS in accepted benchmarks,15 compared to 7400 MIPS and 3.9 GFLOPS for the analogously clocked (1.73 GHz) Pentium M 740.16

The Pineview belvedere has accurate to be alone hardly faster than the antecedent Diamondville platform. This is because the Pineview belvedere uses the aforementioned Bonnell beheading amount as Diamondville and is affiliated to the anamnesis ambassador via the FSB, appropriately anamnesis cessation and achievement in CPU-intensive applications are minimally improved

Bonnell microarchitecture

Intel Atom processors are based on the Bonnell microarchitecture34 which can assassinate up to two instructions per cycle. Like abounding added x86 microprocessors, it translates x86-instructions (CISC instructions) into simpler centralized operations (sometimes referred to as micro-ops, i.e., finer RISC appearance instructions) above-mentioned to execution. The majority of instructions aftermath one micro-op back translated, with about 4% of instructions acclimated in archetypal programs bearing assorted micro-ops. The cardinal of instructions that aftermath added than one micro-op is decidedly beneath than the P6 and NetBurst microarchitectures. In the Bonnell microarchitecture, centralized micro-ops can accommodate both a anamnesis amount and a anamnesis abundance in affiliation with an ALU operation, appropriately actuality added agnate to the x86 akin and added able than the micro-ops acclimated in antecedent designs.19 This enables almost acceptable achievement with alone two accumulation ALUs, and after any apprenticeship reordering, abstract execution, or annals renaming. The Bonnell microarchitecture accordingly represents a fractional awakening of the attempt acclimated in beforehand Intel designs such as P5 and the i486, with the sole purpose of acceptable the achievement per watt ratio. However, Hyper-Threading is implemented in an accessible (i.e., low power) way to apply both pipelines calmly by alienated the archetypal distinct cilia dependencies

Silverthorne microprocessor

On March 2, 2008, Intel appear a fresh single-core Atom Z5xx alternation processor (code-named Silverthorne) to be acclimated in ultra-mobile PCs/mobile Internet accessories (MIDs) which will abandon Stealey (A100 and A110). The processor is a 47 actor transistor, 25 mm2, sub-3 W IA processor which allows ~2500 chips to fit on a distinct 300 mm bore wafer, acceptance for acutely economical production.

An Atom Z500 processor's dual-thread achievement is agnate to its antecedent Stealey, but should beat it on applications that can use accompanying multithreading and SSE3.20 They run from 0.8 to 2.0 GHz and accept amid 0.65 and 2.4 W TDP appraisement appropriately that can dip bottomward to 0.01 W21 back idle. It appearance a 2-issue accompanying multithreading, 16 date in-order activity with 32 KB apprenticeship L1 and 24 KB abstracts L1 caches, accumulation and amphibian point beheading units, x86 advanced end, a 512 KB L2 accumulation and abstracts transferred at 533 MHz on the front-side bus. The architecture is bogus in 9M 45 nm high-k metal-gate CMOS and housed in a 441-ball µFCBGA package

Diamondville microprocessor

On March 2, 2008, Intel appear lower-power variants of the Diamondville CPU called Atom N2xx. It was advised for use in nettops, and the Classmate PC netbook.242526 Like their predecessors, these are single-core CPUs with Hyper-Threading.

The N270 has a TDP of 2.5 W, runs at 1.6 GHz27 and has a 533 MHz FSB. The N280 has a 1.66 GHz alarm acceleration and a 667 MHz FSB.28

On September 22, 2008, Intel appear a fresh dual-core processor (unofficially code-named Bifold Diamondville) branded Atom 330, to be acclimated in desktop computers. It runs at 1.6 GHz and has a FSB active at 533 MHz. The processor has an 8 W TDP rating. Its bifold amount consists of two Diamondville dies on a distinct substrate. Atom 330 supports 64 bit instructions.

During 2009, Nvidia acclimated the Atom 300 and their GeForce 9400M chipset on a mini-ITX anatomy agency motherboard for their Ion platform